04. KAALA VYAVAHARA (Time-Matters)
01. KAALAA (TIME)
02. HUMANS' TIME
03. DEVAS' TIME
04. YUGA CYCLES
05. BRAHMAA'S TIME
Time is Kaala Devan
(Devan is "God") who has no beginning and no end. Kaalaa is eternal.
Kaalam, the 'time' we normally talk about, is the 'interval' between two
'positions' of the sun with respect to an 'observer'. Any particular position
or situation repeats at regular intervals depending on the speed of the
revolution and the speed of the circuar motion. So Kaalam is a cyclic
Mahakaala & Khandakaala
This unending Kaala with no beginning or no end is said to be 'infinite
'. The time whose beginning and/or end we can know is
(finite). This khandakaala is divided into two:
Based On Surya Siddhantha
Like Numbers and Number Systems, Kala Vyavahara
also is very
basic and essential to every aspect of life and sciences. Bharaths excelled in
kala vyavahara also. They had very advanced concepts of time and measuring time.
Vedas and Puranas describe a massive range of units of Kala measurements,
spanning from few microseconds (Paramanu
) to trillions of years
). There are many different scales to meet many different needs.
Even today these units are used in Bharath for various traditional, personal
and 'religious' activities by 'Hindus
', Budhiests and Jains.
02. HUMANS' TIME
Real time is measured by praanaa
Praanaa means respiration and
praanaa is also used as an unit of time -time taken by a normal healthy
person for one breath
(to inhale and exhale once). Other units of time are
vinaadi, naadi, ahoratra and so on.
|1 praana|| (time for 1 respiration)||4 seconds|
|1 vinaadi||6 praanaa||24 seconds|
|1 naadi||60 vinaadi||24 minues|
|1 ahoratra (day)||60 naadi||24 hours |
|1 maasa (month)||30 ahoratra||30 days|
|1 year||12 maasa||360 days|
Note that our (human) day is the time interval between two successive sunrise's
(i.e. sun rising above our horizon for a person standing on or near our equator.)
A word about the measure, praana.
Earth makes one complete rotation in one day;
|3600 || in 24 hours.|
|150 || in 1 hour.|
| 10 || in 4 minutes.|
| 1' || in 4 seconds.|
Earth turns 1'
in 4 seconds
That is Earth turns 1 second of angle in 4 seconds of time. And our Praanaa is
this 4 seconds. See how beautifully the unit blends with nature!
Life-span of Humans
|(For non-maths people) The units we use today:|
|1 hour || = 60' (minutes)|| and || 1' (minute)|| = 60" (seconds)|
|10 (degree)|| = 60' (minutes)|| and || 1' (minute)|| = 60" (seconds)|
Human's life-span is totally un-predictable.
In a sense, humans are the heroes
of the whole creation.
03. DEVAS' TIME
Devas' day is the time interval between two successive (Devas') sunrise's
(i.e. sun rising above Devas' horizon). Devaloka is above the North Pole of the
earth and so for a Deva, our equator is the horizon. The time interval between
two successive sun-rise's - sun rising above our equator (entering the Northern
Hemisphere) - is a Devas' day, which equals 1 human year.
Devas' 1 Day = Humans' 1 Year
Note that sun climbs above our equator into the northern hemisphere); this
happens once a year during the middle of Uthraayanaa (sun's 'northward' motion).
Asuralok (World of Asuras) and Pitrulok (world of dead humans) are 'below' the
South-pole. So their one day also is one human year. Note that their day-time
is night-time for Devas and their night-time is day-time for Devas.
Devas' 1 year = Devas' 360 days = Humans' 360 years
04. YUGA CYCLES
, which is also known as Maha Yuga
, is a very important
and interesting unit of time from our human point of view. It repeats
perennially, whenever Brahma, the Creator, is 'active'.
There are two other units: (1) Charana
and (2) Manvanthara
|1 Charana = || 432,000||human years|
|10 Charanas = || 1||Chathur Yuga|
| 1 Manvanthara = ||71||Chathur Yuga|
The Chathur Yuga is divided into 4 yugas:
Kritha-yuga, Tretha-yuga, Dwaapara-yuga
(in that order).
One Chathur-Yuga or Maha-Yuga
|Kritha||4||1 728 000||100%||0%|
|Tretha||3||1 296 000||75%||25%|
| Total:||10||4 320 000 years|
Another very important aspect is the Dharmic/Adharmic
levels in the 'creations'.
These yugas differ in the amount of dharma
(virtue) that prevails.
The cycle starts perfectly with full (100%) dharma and so the first yuga
(Krithayuga) is also known as Sathya-yuga
. Then the system
starts to decay and dharma levels drop to 75%, 50% and 25% for the subsequent yugas.
Incidentally we are now in a Kali-yuga with only 25% dharma and 75%
(sinful ways, lack of dharma).
05. BRAHMAA'S TIME
Sandhi (Twilight Period)
Every yuga is sandwiched between two twilight periods each of which equals one-sixth of the yuga itself. These twilight
periods are in fact the sandhya
The chaturyuga keeps repeating itself. 71 chaturyugas make a Manvanthara
(= 710 charanas).
The manvantharas are sandwiched between twilight
periods (like sandhis
each of which equals 4 charanas.
14 manwantharas (0 (with the necessary twilight periods) make a Kalpa
So one Kalpa consists of 14 Manvantharas and 15 twilight periods
Length of One Kalpa equals:
| 14 Manvantharas || = 994 Maha Yugas |
|15 twilights (= 60 charanas)|| = 6 Maha Yugas |
| 1 Kalpa|| = 1000 Maha Yugas|
| ||= 4,320,000,000 years |
So one kalpa equals 10,000 Charanas or 4,320,000,000 years.
is Brahma's 1 Day-time
and this is immediately followed
by an equally long Brahmaa's night-time. So Brahmaa's one complete day
(including night) equals 2 kalpa. For Brahmaa, 30 days is a month; 12 months
is a year and 100 years is his 'life', called a Para
Brahmaa's Life = 1 Para = 1 MahaaKalpa = 72,000 Kalpaas
FEW OTHER SAMPLES
Measures of Time-spans
|1 Day of Brahmaa||2 Kalpas||8,640,000,000 years|
|1 Month of Brahmaa||30 B's Days|| 259,200,000,000 years|
|1 Year of Brahmaa||12 B's Months|| 3,110,400,000,000 years|
|1 Life of Brahmaa||100 B's Years|| 311,040,000,000,000 years|
A Brahmaa's life-span = 1 Para = 1 Maha-Kalpa = 311.04 trillion yrs.
Life-span of our earth
= Life-span of a Brahmaa = 311.040 trillion years
Let us take the paramanu
, the smallest particle of material substance,
which has not yet combined with any other similar particles, (a sub-atomic
particle of matter
). The amount of time it takes the sun to pass across
this paramanu is also called paramanu
. One paramanu is close to
0.000 026 337 ... secs.
A combination of two paramanu's constitutes an anu
(atom); and three anu's
make one trasarenu. Trasarenu's are visible [to the naked eye] when seen
floating upward in the air while viewed through rays of sunlight which enter
a room through a latticed window.
Three trasarenus is called a truti
, which is a measure of time it
takes (the sun) to travel across three trasarenus. We have truti, vedha,
lava, nimesha, ksana, kastha, laghu, danda, muhurtha and
Month & Year
|1 paramanu||1 x paramanu||128/4,860,000 sec.||0.000 026 337 ... secs.|
|1 anu||2 x paramanu||128/2,430,000 sec.|| |
|1 tasarenu||3 x anu||128/810,000 sec.||(0.000 158 024 7 sec.)|
|1 truti||3 x tasarenu||128/270,000 sec.|| |
|1 vedha||100 x truti||128/2,700 sec.|| |
|1 lava||3 x vedha||128/900 sec.|| |
|1 nimesha||3 x lava||128/300 sec.|| |
|1 ksana||3 x nimesha||128/100 sec.|| |
|1 kastha||5 x ksana||128/20 sec.|| |
|1 laghu||15 x kastha||96 sec.|| |
|1 danda||15 x laghu||24 min.|| |
|1 muhurtha||2 x danda||48 min.|| |
|1 ahoratra||30 x muhurtha||24 hrs.||1 day|
6 Ritu's (Seasons)
|1 maasa||30 days||1 month|
|1 ritu||2 maasa||2 months|
|1 ayana||3 ritu's||6 months|
|1 samvatsara||2 ayana||1 year|
|1. Hemanta ||Dec/Feb||Pre-Winter|