04. KAALA VYAVAHARA (Time-Matters)

01. KAALAA (TIME)

02. HUMANS' TIME

03. DEVAS' TIME

04. YUGA CYCLES

05. BRAHMAA'S TIME

01. KAALAA

Time is

Kaalam, the 'time' we normally talk about, is the 'interval' between two 'positions' of the sun with respect to an 'observer'. Any particular position or situation repeats at regular intervals depending on the speed of the revolution and the speed of the circuar motion. So Kaalam is a

This unending Kaala with no beginning or no end is said to be '

Like Numbers and Number Systems,

02. HUMANS' TIME

Real time is measured by

Praanaa means respiration and praanaa is also used as an unit of time -

1 praana | (time for 1 respiration) | 4 seconds |

1 vinaadi | 6 praanaa | 24 seconds |

1 naadi | 60 vinaadi | 24 minues |

1 ahoratra (day) | 60 naadi | 24 hours |

1 maasa (month) | 30 ahoratra | 30 days |

1 year | 12 maasa | 360 days |

Note that our (human) day is the time interval between two successive sunrise's (i.e. sun rising above our horizon for a person standing on or near our equator.)

A word about the measure, praana.

Earth makes one complete rotation in one day;

360^{0} | in 24 hours. |

15^{0} | in 1 hour. |

1^{0} | in 4 minutes. |

1^{'} | in 4 seconds. |

Earth turns 1

That is Earth turns 1 second of angle in 4 seconds of time. And our Praanaa is this 4 seconds. See how beautifully the unit blends with nature!

(For non-maths people) The units we use today: | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|

1 hour | = 60^{'} (minutes) | and | 1^{'} (minute) | = 60^{"} (seconds) |

1^{0} (degree) | = 60^{'} (minutes) | and | 1^{'} (minute) | = 60^{"} (seconds) |

Human's life-span is totally un-predictable.

In a sense,

03. DEVAS' TIME

Devas' day is the time interval between two successive (Devas') sunrise's (i.e. sun rising above Devas' horizon). Devaloka is above the North Pole of the earth and so for a Deva, our equator is the horizon. The time interval between two successive sun-rise's - sun rising above our equator (entering the Northern Hemisphere) - is a Devas' day, which equals 1 human year.

Note that sun climbs above our equator into the northern hemisphere); this happens once a year during the middle of Uthraayanaa (sun's 'northward' motion).

Asuralok (World of Asuras) and Pitrulok (world of dead humans) are 'below' the South-pole. So their one day also is one human year. Note that their day-time is night-time for Devas and their night-time is day-time for Devas.

04. YUGA CYCLES

There are two other units: (1)

1 Charana = | 432,000 | human years |

10 Charanas = | 1 | Chathur Yuga |

1 Manvanthara = | 71 | Chathur Yuga |

The Chathur Yuga is divided into 4 yugas:

YUGAS | CHARANAS | HUMAN-YEARS | DHARMA | ADHARMA |

Kritha | 4 | 1 728 000 | 100% | 0% |

Tretha | 3 | 1 296 000 | 75% | 25% |

Dwapara | 2 | 864 000 | 50% | 50% |

Kali | 1 | 432 000 | 25% | 75% |

Total: | 10 | 4 320 000 years |

Another very important aspect is the

05. BRAHMAA'S TIME

Every yuga is sandwiched between two twilight periods each of which equals one-sixth of the yuga itself. These twilight periods are in fact the

The chaturyuga keeps repeating itself. 71 chaturyugas make a

So one Kalpa consists of 14 Manvantharas and 15 twilight periods

Length of One Kalpa equals:

14 Manvantharas | = 994 Maha Yugas |

15 twilights (= 60 charanas) | = 6 Maha Yugas |

1 Kalpa | = 1000 Maha Yugas |

= 4,320,000,000 years |

So one kalpa equals 10,000 Charanas or 4,320,000,000 years.

1 Day of Brahmaa | 2 Kalpas | 8,640,000,000 years |

1 Month of Brahmaa | 30 B's Days | 259,200,000,000 years |

1 Year of Brahmaa | 12 B's Months | 3,110,400,000,000 years |

1 Life of Brahmaa | 100 B's Years | 311,040,000,000,000 years |

A Brahmaa's life-span = 1 Para = 1 Maha-Kalpa = 311.04 trillion yrs.

FEW OTHER SAMPLES

Let us take the

A combination of two paramanu's constitutes an

Three trasarenus is called a

1 paramanu | 1 x paramanu | 128/4,860,000 sec. | 0.000 026 337 ... secs. |

1 anu | 2 x paramanu | 128/2,430,000 sec. | |

1 tasarenu | 3 x anu | 128/810,000 sec. | (0.000 158 024 7 sec.) |

1 truti | 3 x tasarenu | 128/270,000 sec. | |

1 vedha | 100 x truti | 128/2,700 sec. | |

1 lava | 3 x vedha | 128/900 sec. | |

1 nimesha | 3 x lava | 128/300 sec. | |

1 ksana | 3 x nimesha | 128/100 sec. | |

1 kastha | 5 x ksana | 128/20 sec. | |

1 laghu | 15 x kastha | 96 sec. | |

1 danda | 15 x laghu | 24 min. | |

1 muhurtha | 2 x danda | 48 min. | |

1 ahoratra | 30 x muhurtha | 24 hrs. | 1 day |

1 maasa | 30 days | 1 month |

1 ritu | 2 maasa | 2 months |

1 ayana | 3 ritu's | 6 months |

1 samvatsara | 2 ayana | 1 year |

1. Hemanta | Dec/Feb | Pre-Winter |

2. Shishira | Feb/Apr | Winter |

3. Vasantha | Apr/Jun | Spring |

4. Griishma | Jun/Aug | Summer |

5. Varsha | Aug/Oct | Rainy |

6. Sharat | Oct/Dec | Autumn |